What causes acne?
Acne is associated with oily skin. It begins with obstruction of the orifice of the hair and sebaceous gland. A horny plug blocks the opening of the hair. It produces a microcomedo (the smallest form of an acne lesion) then microcysts. Bacteria that proliferate in the follicle (Propioni-bacterium acne) release substances that cause inflammation and lead microcysts a red button and a white head.
So we recognize several important factors in the development of acne:
– Increased sebum production is responsible for oily skin. It is mainly dependent on male hormones (androgens) in men and women. It is believed that the sebaceous gland is too sensitive to androgens can also synthesize it.
– The obstruction of the orifice of hair by a horny plug causes damage retention (microcomedo then open comedones or blackheads and closed comedones that form small grains or flesh colored microcysts). Several factors influence the obstruction of the pilosebaceous follicles as the composition of sebum, the rate of male hormones, bacteria and substances produced by skin cells (cytokines).
– There is an abnormality of the microbial flora (microbes living normally on the skin). The Proprionibacterium acne plays an essential role and promotes the development of red spots from comedo, but acne is not an infection caused by these bacteria.
– The inflammation causes red bumps or papules, pustules or white heads and large red pimples or painful nodules. The inflammation is caused by substances produced by bacteria and perhaps also by fatty acids from sebum.
– Familial factors also play a role in the development of acne. Adolescents with acne have one parent who has acne in almost half the cases (45%), while the relatives of those who do not have acne are affected by this condition approximately one times in ten (8%).
– Acne is influenced by male hormones but it is rarely caused by a disorder or disease of the endocrine glands (polycystic ovary syndrome in women, 21 hydroxylase congenital condition or rare). This is most likely a sebaceous gland hypersensitivity to male hormones.
– Particular forms of acne have specific causes. The newborn acne is caused by the passage of maternal hormones in the blood of newborn acne is caused by induced medication (pills, cortisone, antiepileptic …) or toxic exposure to ultraviolet , acne cosmetic is caused by application of creams comedogenic.